Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange I
ABIDE I

The Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange I (ABIDE I) represents the first ABIDE initiative. Started as a grass roots effort, ABIDE I involved 17 international sites, sharing previously collected resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI), anatomical and phenotypic datasets made available for data sharing with the broader scientific community. This effort yielded 1112 dataset, including 539 from individuals with ASD and 573 from typical controls (ages 7-64 years, median 14.7 years across groups). This aggregate was released in August 2012. Its establishment demonstrated the feasibility of aggregating resting state fMRI and structural MRI data across sites; the rate of these data use and resulting publications (see Manuscripts) have shown its utility for capturing whole brain and regional properties of the brain connectome in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In accordance with HIPAA guidelines and 1000 Functional Connectomes Project / INDI protocols, all datasets have been anonymized, with no protected health information included. Below, are the specific types of information included in ABIDE I, the data usage agreement, sign up and data download links.

Last Updated June 24, 2016.

ABIDE I Credits

Consortium Founders

Adriana Di Martino1, Stewart Mostofsky2

Project Coordinator

Adriana Di Martino1

Phenotypic Data Aggregation and Organization

Adriana Di Martino1, Erin Denio1, Michael P. Milham3,4

Imaging Data Aggregation and Organization

The INDI Team:
Qingyang Li3, Ranjit Khanuja3, Sharad Sikka1,4,
Chao-Gan Yan4, Cameron Craddock3, Michael P. Milham3,4

Website Design

Brett Lullo1, Adriana Di Martino1

Website Updates

David O'Connor3, Andrea Devoto1

Additional Website Support

Daniel Lurie3, Anna Rachlin3, Emily Brady1

ABIDE Design Element

Dawn Thomsen3, Nancy Duan3, Adriana Di Martino1

Special thanks to F. Xavier Castellanos1,4 for his advisory role and naming of the ABIDE consortium, as well as his continued support for FCP/INDI efforts.

1. Phyllis Green and Randolph Co̅wen Institute for Pediatric Neuroscience at the NYU Child Study Center, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America

2. Laboratory for Neurocognitive and Imaging Research, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

3. Center for the Developing Brain, Child Mind Institute, New York, New York, United States of America

4. Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, New York, United States of America

Usage Agreement

Consistent with the policies of the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project, data usage is unrestricted for non-commercial research purposes. We kindly request that the specific datasets included in analyses be specified appropriately, and that their funding sources be acknowledged. As per INDI protocol, we simply require that users register with the NITRC and 1000 Functional Connectomes Project to gain access. (Creative Commons, Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike License)

Note: In order to access ABIDE datasets, users must be logged into NITRC at the time of download and registered with the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project / INDI website. A permission error message will occur if you are not logged in and properly registered.

Register for NITRC and INDI

ABIDE I Downloads

See individual site profiles to the right for MRI protocol information and imaging files available for download.

If you have questions about ABIDE or encounter technical difficulties, please visit the INDI forums.

ABIDE I Database Initiative

In addition to distributing ABIDE datasets in .tar and .csv file formats via NITRC as is customary for the FCP, the INDI team has recruited the efforts of leading informatics platforms:

Each informatics platform has agreed to simultaneously host the ABIDE datasets prepared by the INDI team. Such coordination will give users an unprecedented opportunity to sample emerging technologies and explore the value of these diverse platforms not only for accessing shared data, but also potentially for their own internal infrastructure needs.

Click here for database access instructions.



ABIDE I Funding Acknowledgements

Primary support for the work by Adriana Di Martino was provided by the NIMH (K23MH087770) and the Leon Levy Foundation.

Primary support for the work by Michael P. Milham and the INDI team was provided by gifts from Joseph P. Healy and the Stavros Niarchos Foundation to the Child Mind Institute, as well as by an NIMH award to MPM (R03MH096321).

ABIDE I Sites

Investigators

Daniel P. Kennedy, Ph.D.1,2, J. Michael Tyszka, Ph.D.3, Ralph Adolphs, Ph.D.1,3

Affiliations

  1. Division of Humanities and Social Sciences, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA
  2. Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
  3. Division of Biology, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA

Acknowledgements

We thank Catherine Holcomb for assistance with data collection and Lynn K. Paul for assistance with clinical assessment.

Funding

  • Simons Foundation (SFARI-07-01 to R.A.)
  • National Institute of Mental Health (R01 MH080721 to R.A.)

Publications

  • Tyszka, J.M.*, Kennedy, D.P.*, Paul, L.K., & Adolphs, R. (submitted). Largely similar patterns of resting-state functional connectivity in high functioning adults with autism. (* = equal contribution)

Sample Size

Total: 38 (17.0-56.2 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 19 (17.5-45.1 years)
(13 Autistic Disorder, 6 Either Asperger's Disorder or Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified)

Typical Controls (TC): 19 (17-56.2 years)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Diagnosis of ASD was consistent with DSM-IV-TR criteria, and classification of either autism or ASD (i.e., Asperger's or PDD-NOS) was made by a clinician based on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) (Lord et al., 2000) and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) (Lord et al., 1994). The distinction between autism and ASD was made on the basis of the ADOS (i.e., meeting cutoffs for either ASD or autism) and clinical judgment. For the Restricted, Repetitive, and Stereotyped Patterns of Behavior (Section C) on the ADI-R, we used a more liberal criterion of including participants who were within 1 point of the cutoff (n = 2). Those participants who did not meet criteria for autistic disorder were classified as ASD without distinctions between PDD-NOS or Asperger's Disorder. We excluded participants with full-scale IQ < 80 or comorbid psychiatric or neurological conditions including, but not limited to, Major Depression, Schizophrenia, Epilepsy and history of traumatic brain injury, as assessed through both a structured interview (the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, version 5.0.0) and a semi-structured interview administered by a clinician.

Typical Controls (TC)

Typical controls must have no family history of an ASD. Typical controls were matched at the group level to ASD relative to age, sex, handedness, and full-scale IQ, and had no self-reported history of ASD or any psychiatric or neurological condition.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Nineteen high-functioning adults with an ASD and nineteen TC were recruited from our registry under a protocol approved by the Human Subjects Protection committee of the California Institute of Technology.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (total, performance and verbal IQ) using the four subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI).

Handedness

Handedness was measured based on self-report.

Medication Information

We did not collect information on the use of psychoactive medications at the time of scanning.

Exclusion Criteria Common to all Participants

Contraindications to MRI.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

We did not use any mock scan or additional preparation beyond standard written and verbal description when consent was obtained as well as verbal instructions prior to and during scan session. The majority of participants were familiar with the scanner environment, having participated in previous MRI studies.

MRI Scanning

Participants were asked to lie still in the scanner, with their eyes closed, while staying awake. No stimuli were shown on the screen. After the scan, all participants confirmed that they remained awake throughout. Resting-state scans were acquired along with other structural scans, but no task-based experiments.

Data Quality Control

Two scans were acquired from as many participants as possible; we are sharing the one with fewer transient artifacts as determined by ArtRepair (Mazaika et al., 2009; http://cibsr.stanford.edu/tools/human-brain-project/artrepair-software.html). We shared data from every participant that we had at least 1 scan from (i.e., we did not exclude participants entirely from this dataset on the basis of movement).

References

  1. "Methods and Software for fMRI Analysis for Clinical Subjects", by Paul Mazaika, Fumiko Hoeft, Gary H. Glover, and Allan L. Reiss, Human Brain Mapping, 2009.

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Investigators

Marlene Behrmann, Ph.D.1, Ilan Dinstein, Ph.D.1,2, Nancy Minshew, M.D.3

Affiliations

  1. Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
  2. Psychology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheba, Israel
  3. Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Acknowledgements

David Heeger, Ph.D. New York University

Funding

  • NICHD/NIDCD PO1/U19 to M. B. (PI: Nancy Minshew), which is part of the NICHD/NIDCD Collaborative Programs for Excellence in Autism
  • Simons Foundation to M. B. (PI: David Heeger)

Publications

  • No publications associated with the shared data.

Sample Size

Total: 27 (19-40 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 14 (19-39 years)

Typical Controls (TC): 13 (20-40 years)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

The diagnosis of autistic disorder was established using the Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised (ADI-R) [Lord, Rutter, & Le Couteur, 1994], the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule [Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 2001], and the expert clinical diagnosis Estimates of IQ were determined by the Center for Excellence in Autism Research (CEFAR) staff within 1 year of the fMRI experiments. Individuals with autism were medically healthy and had no identifiable genetic, metabolic, or infectious etiology for their disorder. Participants were also free of traumatic brain injury, clinically active seizures, attention deficit disorder, and depression. Their personal and family health histories were evaluated in the initial screening interview and in the medical review portion of the ADI. Exclusion was based on neurological history, chromosomal analysis, metabolic testing, and clinical evaluation. None of the subjects with autistic disorder had a history of epilepsy.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Participants with autistic disorder were recruited and assessed by the Center for Excellence in Autism Research (CEFAR) at the University of Pittsburgh.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (total, performance, and verbal IQ) using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence.

Handedness

Handedness was established using the Reitan-Klove Lateral Dominance Examination.

Medication Information

History of current psychoactive medication (here defined as use of psychoactive medications at first phone screening occurring within a year of the scan session) was collected. Information regarding psychoactive medication use is reported in the phenotypic table attached (see link to dataset and/or to databases). We did not ask participants to withhold any medication use prior to scan, nor did we collect information on medication status at time of scan.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

Many of the participants had participated in previous imaging studies. Those who had not were acclimated to the procedure using a mock scanner (resembling the real magnet in appearance as well as visual and auditory stimulation). In addition, detailed written and verbal description were provided during consent /assent as well as verbal instructions prior to and during scan session.

MRI Scanning

Participants were asked to close their eyes and the room lights were shut off during the rest scan. Subjects may have fallen asleep during the scans. Two different sequences were used for collected structural and fMRI data (see below).

Data Quality Control

We submitted all collected data, regardless of movement/quality.

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Investigators

Stewart H. Mostofsky, M.D.1,2,3, Mary Beth Nebel, Ph.D.1,2

Affiliations

  1. Laboratory for Neurocognitive and Imaging Research, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA
  2. Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  3. Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA

Acknowledgements

Anita Barber, Rebecca Buhlman, Brian Caffo, Deana Crocetti, Suresh Joel, John Muschelli, Carrie Nettles, James, Pekar, Kristie Sweeney, and Michelle Talley

Funding

  • Autism Speaks Foundation (Mostofsky)
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: R01 NS048527 (Mostofsky)

Publications

  • Barber AD, Srinivasan P, Joel SE, Caffo BS, Pekar JJ and Mostofsky SH (2012). Motor "dexterity"?: Evidence that left hemisphere lateralization of motor circuit connectivity is associated with better motor performance in children. Cereb Cortex, 22(1):51-9.
  • Nebel MB, Joel SE, Muschelli J, Barber AD, Caffo BS, Pekar JJ and Mostofsky SH (in press). Disruption of functional organization within primary motor cortex in children with autism. Hum Brain Mapp.

Sample Size

Total: 55 (8.0-12.8)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 22 (8.0-12.5)
(11 Autism, 11 Asperger's Disorder)

Typical Controls (TC): 33 (8.0-12.8)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Participants in the ASD group were initially screened by telephone for a diagnosis of Autistic Disorder or Asperger's Disorder. Parents also completed an Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)4,5 over the phone prior to visits to the Kennedy Krieger Institute. On the day of their first visit, participants completed an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-G)1-3 to confirm a diagnosis of Autism or Asperger's.

To be determined eligible for the study, participants had to meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for Autism or Asperger's Syndrome as confirmed by clinical impression, and had to meet the cutoffs for both the ADI-R and the ADOS-G, Module 3; moreover, participants were screened for other psychiatric diagnoses by the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-IV (DICA-IV)6. Of note, comorbid ADHD in this sample was based on meeting all criteria for ADHD except for criterion E in the DSM-IV-TR, which excludes the co-occurrence of ADHD in the presence of ASD. Data on comorbidity along with diagnostic data are shared in the current dataset (see link to data set and or to databases).

Typical Controls (TC)

Participants in the TC group were screened for psychiatric disorders by the DICA-IV; if potential participants met criteria for psychiatric diagnoses other than Simple Phobia, they were excluded from the study. Furthermore, TC were excluded if they had any immediate family members with a diagnosis of an ASD.

Note: Some of the TC children included in this dataset also participated in studies from which data were contributed to the ADHD-200 (http://fcon_1000.projects.nitrc.org/indi/adhd200/) sample. Thus, some level of data overlap may exist for TC (age range of 7 to 13 years) between these two repositories.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Participants were recruited through Baltimore County and Howard County Public Schools, private schools for children with intellectual disabilities, doctor offices, autism events and conferences, and Kennedy Krieger websites through IRB approved flyers, magazine and web advertisements, as well as by word of mouth. Written informed consent/assent were obtained for all participants in accordance with the Johns Hopkins IRB.

Estimated IQ

All participants were administered the WISC-IV7; inclusion as a TC required score of > 80 on the FSIQ, whereas eligibility as a child with ASD required a score of > 80 on the FSIQ, VCI, or PRI.

Additional Questionnaires/Interviews

Beyond the measures described above, parents completed the following questionnaires: The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18, Children's Communication Checklist-2, Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised, Child's Sleep Habits (Preschool and School-Aged), Developmental Coordination Questionnaire (DCDQ), DuPaul Child Behavior Scale, Tanners Physical Development Scale, Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised, Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED; child and parent versions), Sensory Processing Measure, and the Social Responsiveness Scale-Child Versions (SRS). Additionally, participants were assessed for reading level using the WIAT-II8 Word Reading subtest; all participants needed a score of > 85 to be included in the study. Given the unfunded nature of the ABIDE effort, we have not been able to prepare these additional data for sharing.

Handedness

We used the 22 item Edinburgh Handedness Inventory9. For each item, participants were asked if they use the right, the left, or both hands to complete a particular task. The sum of the right-hand responses minus the sum of the left hand responses divided by the total number of unilateral responses multiplied by 100 provided a total handedness score ranging from 100 (strongest right handedness) to -100 (strongest left handedness).

Medication Information

During the initial phone interview, parents were asked about any medications that their child was currently taking and were asked to withhold their child's stimulant medications for the day prior to and the day of the scan.

Exclusion Criteria Common to all Participants

Children were excluded from participation if they experienced trauma at birth or had a history of a definitive neurologic disorder including seizures (except for uncomplicated brief febrile seizures), tumor, severe head injury, stroke or lesion. Additional common exclusion criteria included major visual or hearing impairments or conditions that contraindicate MRI (cardiac pacemaker, surgical clips in the brain or blood vessels, dental braces, etc.).

References

  1. Gotham K, Pickles A, Lord C. Standardizing ADOS scores for a measure of severity in autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39(5):693-705.
  2. Gotham K, Risi S, Pickles A, Lord C. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: revised algorithms for improved diagnostic validity. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2007;37(4):613-27.
  3. Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, Risi S. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Service; 1999.
  4. Lord C, Rutter M, Le Couteur A. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 1994;24(5):659-85.
  5. Le Couteur A, Lord C, Rutter M. The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services; 2003.
  6. Reich, W., Welner, Z., & Herjanic, B. (1997). Diagnostic interview for children-IV (DICA-IV). North Tonowanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.
  7. Wechsler D. L.Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation; 2003.
  8. Wechsler D. L.Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation; 2002.
  9. Oldfield RC. The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia. 1971;9(1):97-113.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

All participants completed at least one mock scan session to acclimate to the scanner noises and decrease anxiety prior to taking part in the MRI scanning.

MRI Scanning

MRI scans, acquired using a 3 Tesla Philips Achieva scanner, were conducted in a separate visit following the diagnostic assessment (typically within 3 months). Children taking psychostimulants were asked to withhold them the day prior to and the day of the scan. During the resting state fMRI scan participants were asked to simply look at a crosshair on a black computer screen.

Data Quality Control

All high resolution and EPI images were internally reviewed for quality control by research staff members. As datasets with a wide range of image quality are being shared, only the most extreme cases of movement were excluded from this sample.

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Investigators

Sophia Mueller, M.D.1, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, M.D.1, Kristina Hennig-Fast2, Michele Noterdaeme, M.D.3

Affiliations

  1. Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Munich, Germany
  2. Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Munich, Germany
  3. Josefinum - Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Augsburg, Germany

Acknowledgements

Thomas Meindl, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich

Katharina Radziej, Graduate Student, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich

Hannes Müller, Graduate Student, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich

Karolin Gruber, Josefinum - Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Augsburg, Germany

Denise Steffinger, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich

Ute Coates, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich

Inga Koerte, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich

Andreas Pomschar, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich

Florian Heinen, Department of Neuropediatrics, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich

Funding

  • None

Publications

  • Poster presented at the 17th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Québec, 2011
  • Mueller S, Keeser D, Hegenloh M, Samson AC, Coates U, Reiser MF, Hennig-Fast K, Meindl T: Alterations in functional and structural connectivity may provide correlates for symptoms in autism

Sample Size

Total: 57 (7-58 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 24 (7-58 years)
(2 Autistic Disorder, 22 Asperger's Disorder)

Typical Controls (TC): 33 (7-48 years)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Adult individuals were included if they had a documented clinical diagnosis according to ICD-10 criteria (F.84.5) supported by the Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised (ADI-R). In addition to expert clinical evaluation, autistic traits were quantified by administration of the Autism Quotient questionnaire (AQ)1. Individuals with secondary autism related to a specific etiology such as tuberous sclerosis or Fragile X syndrome were excluded. Further exclusion criteria comprised history of major psychiatric disorders (e.g. depression, psychosis), seizure, head injury, toxic exposure and the evidence of genetic, metabolic, or infectious disorders.

Typical Controls (TC)

Typical children and adult individuals were recruited to group-match the ASD group relative to age. The following inclusion criteria had to be met: absence of reported history of major psychiatric disorder, seizure, head injury, or toxic exposure; no evidence of genetic, metabolic, or infectious disorders; no history of delayed language development.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Children with likely ASD were recruited by the outpatient clinic of the Hospital for Child and Youth Psychiatry-Josefinum, Augsburg. Typical children were recruited by staff members of the Department of Radiology. Adult participants (with or without ASD) were recruited by the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (total IQ) using different tests for children/adolescents and adults. Specifically:

  • Children were administered the Hamburg-Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children (HAWIK-IV)5
  • Adults were administered the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM)6 and/or the "Wortschatztest" (WST; "Vocabulary test"), German IQ test 3. The WST with similar properties to the National Adult Reading Test NART (NART)4

Additional Assessments

The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule was administered to all children with ASD, but not to adults.

Handedness

Handedness was assessed using the Chapman handedness score2.

Medication Information

Current psychoactive medication was defined as use of psychoactive medication within 2 months prior to the scan. Children with ASD on medication withheld treatment for four days preceding the scan. Medications in children included stimulants (methylphenidate) and in one case a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (Strattera, Atomoxetine). Adult participants were included only if off psychoactive psychoactive medications for at least 2 months prior to the scanning. Information about medication status for each participant is provided in the shared dataset (see link to dataset and /or databases).

Exclusion Criteria Common to all Participants

Contraindications to MRI scanning. As stated above, further exclusion criteria comprised history of major psychiatric disorders (e.g. depression, psychosis), seizure, head injury, toxic exposure and the evidence of genetic, metabolic, or infectious disorders.

References

  1. Baron-Cohen S, Wheelwright S, Skinner R, Martin J, Clubley E. (2001): The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. J Autism Dev Disord, 31(1): 5-17.
  2. Chapman LJ, and Chapman JP (1987). The Measurement of Handedness. Brain and Cognition, 6: 175-183.
  3. Metzler P, and Schmidt KH (1992). Wortschatztest (WST), Stuttgart, Germany: Beltz Testverlag.
  4. Nelson HE, and Willison J (1991). National Adult Reading Test (NART): Test Manual. Windsor.
  5. Petermann F, and Petermann U (2008). Kinheit und Entwicklung (Hamburg-Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children), Hogrefe Verlag.
  6. Raven JC (1960). Guide to the standard progressive matrices. London: Lewis and Co.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

We did not use any mock scan or additional preparation beyond standard written and verbal description at consent form time as well as verbal instructions prior to and during scans session.

MRI Scanning

Some participants were instructed to lay still and keep their eyes closed while no visual stimulus was presented during the resting state scan, others were instructed to keep their eyes open and look at a picture of a night sky with stars. Information about the eye status for each subject is provided in the dataset shared (see link to dataset and/or to databases). Most children with ASD were scanned using a 200 time points EPI sequence (instead of 120) to allow for post-hoc deletion of high motion frames.

Data Quality Control

Resting state fMRI data with a mean relative displacement over 0.5 mm1 and a slice SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) below 65 were excluded.

References

  1. Van Dijk KR, Sabuncu MR, Buckner RL (2012): The influence of head motion on intrinsic functional connectivity MRI. NeuroImage 59(1):431-8.

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Investigators

Adriana Di Martino, M.D.1, F. Xavier Castellanos, M.D.1,2, Michael P. Milham, M.D., Ph.D.2,3, Clare Kelly, Ph.D. 1

Affiliations

  1. Phyllis Green and Randolph Co̅wen Institute for Pediatric Neuroscience at the Child Study Center, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA
  2. Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, USA
  3. Center for the Developing Brain, Child Mind Institute, New York, NY, USA

Acknowledgements

We are profoundly grateful to the children, their parents and the adults who participated in our research studies. We further acknowledge the research assistants, postdoctoral fellows, clinical evaluators, interns, and medical students who helped in one or more aspects of the research including recruitment, data collection, data entry, data-basing, and helpful discussions. They are listed alphabetically as follows:

Nicoletta Adamo, M.D.; Samantha Adelsberg, B.A.; Jonathan Adelstein, M.D.; David Anderson, Ph.D.; Samantha Ashinoff, B.S.; Saroja Bangaru, B.S.; Emily Becker-Wideman, Ph.D.; Emily Brady, B.S.; Samuele Cortese, M.D., Ph.D.; Christine Cox, Ph.D.; Camille Chabernaud, Ph.D.; Rachel Chizkov, B.A.; Alexandra Degeorge, Psy.D.; Erin Denio, B.A.; Virginia DeSanctis Ph.D.; Manuel Garcia-Garcia, Ph.D.; Dylan Gee, B.A.; Kristin Gotimer, B.A.; Rebecca Grzadzinski, B.A.; Chiara Fontani, M.A.; Zoe Hyde, M.A.; Carolyn Kessler, Ph.D.; Maki Koyama, Ph.D.; Rebecca Lange, B.A.; Dana Levy, Ph.D.; Brett Lullo, B.S.; Abigail Mengers, B.A.; Maarten Mennes, Ph.D.; Daniel Margulies, Phil.D.; Andrea McLaughlin, Ph.D.; Kritika Nayar, B.S.; Matthew O'Neale; Natan Porter; Jennifer Rodman, Ph.D.; Elizabeth Roberts, Ph.D.; Amy K. Roy, Ph.D.; Ariel Schvarcz, B.S.; David Gutman, M.D.; Devika Jutagir, B.A.; Sharad Sikka, M.S.; Douglas Slaughter, B.S.; Jessica Raithel, B.A.; Jessica Sunshine, B.A.; Leila Sadeghi, M.D.; Zarrar Shehzad, B.A.; Xi-Nian Zuo, Ph.D.

Funding

  • NIH (K23MH087770; R21MH084126; R01MH081218; R01HD065282)
  • Autism Speaks
  • The Stavros Niarchos Foundation
  • The Leon Levy Foundation
  • An endowment provided by Phyllis Green and Randolph Co̅wen

Publications

The following publications included data for some of the typical controls who participated in studies contributing to this repository:

  • Imperati D, Colcombe S, Kelly C, Di Martino A, Zhou J, Castellanos FX, et al. (2011): Differential development of human brain white matter tracts. PLoS One. 6:e23437.
  • Grzadzinski R, Di Martino A, Brady E, Mairena MA, O'Neale M, Petkova E, et al. (2011): Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD? J Autism Dev Disord. 41:1178-1191.
  • Chabernaud C, Mennes M, Kelly C, Nooner K, Di Martino A, Castellanos FX, et al. (2012): Dimensional brain-behavior relationships in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 71:434-442.
  • Mennes M, Vega Potler N, Kelly C, Di Martino A, Castellanos FX, Milham MP (2011): Resting state functional connectivity correlates of inhibitory control in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Front Psychiatry. 2:83.
  • Koyama MS, Di Martino A, Zuo XN, Kelly C, Mennes M, Jutagir DR, et al. (2011): Resting-state functional connectivity indexes reading competence in children and adults. J Neurosci. 31:8617-8624.

Sample Size

Total: 184 (6.5-39.1 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 79 (7.1-39.1 years)
(53 Autistic Disorder, 21 Asperger's Disorder, 5 Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified)

Typical Controls (TC): 105 (6.5-31.8 years)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Inclusion as a participant with ASD required a clinician's DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not-Otherwise-Specified, which was supported by review of available records, an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule1-3, review of the participant's history, and when possible, an Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised4,5.

To assess psychopathology for differential diagnosis and to determine comorbidity with Axis-I disorders, diagnostic assessments also included: 1) parent interview using the Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for Children-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL)6 for children (< 17.9 years of age); 2) participant interview using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis-I Disorders, Non-patient Edition (SCID-I/NP)7 and the Adult ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale (ACDS) for adults (>18.0 years of age). Of note, comorbid ADHD in this sample was based on meeting all criteria for ADHD except for criterion E in the DSM-IV-TR, which excludes the co-occurrence of ADHD in the presence of ASD. Current (within 3 months prior to the evaluation) Manic or Depressive episode, Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder were exclusionary.

Note: some of the data corresponding to children with ASD between ages 7 and 13 years included in this dataset have also been shared through NDAR.

Typical Controls (TC)

Inclusion as a TC was first based on the absence of any current Axis-I disorders based on the KSADS-PL administered to each child and his/her parent(s), and based on the SCID-I/NP and ACDS interviews for adults. TC were selected from ongoing studies to group-match the datasets of individuals with ASD on age and sex.

Note: some of the TC children included in this dataset also participated in studies from which data were contributed to the ADHD-200 (http://fcon_1000.projects.nitrc.org/indi/adhd200/) sample. Thus, some level of data overlap may exist for TC (within the age range of 7 to 21 years) between these two repositories.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Participants were recruited in the New York City and surrounding areas through IRB approved flyers, magazine and web advertisements, parent support groups, referrals form the NYU Child Study Center clinical services, as well as word of mouth. Written informed consent/assent were obtained for all participants in accordance with the NYU-SOM IRB.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (total, performance and verbal IQ) using the four subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)8.

Additional Questionnaires/Interviews

We administered standardized questionnaires to further characterize participants with respect to various symptom domains. Specifically, for child participants, parent(s) completed the Social Communication Questionnaire and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)-Child version. For adult participants an informant identified by the participant completed the SRS-Adult version. Additionally, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (VABS)9, a structured interview used to assess personal and social skills in everyday living, was administered to parents for all children (< 18 years of age). For adult participants, the VABS was administered to an informant (parent, a relative, or a significant other) when available. When an informant who knew the participant well was not available, the participant was administered the VABS. The database specifies whether the VABS was provided by an informant (parent or someone else) or by the participant.

Handedness

We used the 22 item Edinburgh Handedness Inventory10. For each item, participants were asked if they use the right, the left, or both hands to complete a particular task. The sum of the right-hand responses minus the sum of the left hand responses divided by the total number of unilateral responses multiplied by 100 provided a total handedness score ranging from 100 (strongest right handedness) to -100 (strongest left handedness).

Medication Information

Information about past and current treatment was collected both at the initial assessment and again at the day of scan. Participants being treated with stimulants were asked to withhold them for 24 hours prior to the scan, subject to treating physician approval. Current medication status and whether participants were off stimulants on the day of the MRI scan is marked in the database.

Body Mass Index

Body mass index was determined by measuring body weight and height at the initial visit.

Exclusion Criteria Common to all Participants

For all groups, current chronic systemic medical conditions, contraindications to MRI scanning, pregnancy (confirmed by a pregnancy test conducted the day of the scan) and use of antipsychotics were exclusionary.

References

  1. Gotham K, Pickles A, Lord C. Standardizing ADOS scores for a measure of severity in autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39(5):693-705.
  2. Gotham K, Risi S, Pickles A, Lord C. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: revised algorithms for improved diagnostic validity. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2007;37(4):613-27.
  3. Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, Risi S. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Service; 1999.
  4. Lord C, Rutter M, Le Couteur A. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 1994;24(5):659-85.
  5. Le Couteur A, Lord C, Rutter M. The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services; 2003.
  6. Kaufman J, Birmaher B, Brent D, Rao U, Flynn C, Moreci P, et al. Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36(7):980-8.
  7. First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, Williams JB. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders - Non-Patient Edition (SCID-I/NP). New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute; 1995.
  8. Wechsler D. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation; 1999.
  9. Sparrow SS, Cicchetti DV, Balla DA. Vineland-II. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Minneapolis: Pearson Assessments; 2008.
  10. Oldfield RC. The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia. 1971;9(1):97-113.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

Prior to scans, participants were showed pictures of the MRI scan and were described the MRI procedures and experience as well as given the chance to ask questions and elaborate. Additionally, all children completed at least one mock scan session prior to the scan.

MRI Scanning

MRI scans, acquired using a 3 Tesla Allegra, were conducted in a separate visit following the diagnostic assessment (typically within 3 months). Children taking psychostimulants were asked to withhold the medication at least 24 hours prior to the scan, subject to treating physician approval. During the resting state fMRI scan, most participants were asked to relax with their eyes open, while a white cross-hair against a black background was projected on a screen. However, data were also included for some individuals who were asked to keep their eyes closed; in a few cases, participants closed their eyes regardless of instructions to maintain them open. Eye status during the MRI scan was monitored via an eye tracker and is detailed for each participant.

Data Quality Control

All high resolution and EPI images were internally reviewed for quality control by research staff members. As datasets with a wide range of image quality are being shared, only the most extreme cases of movement were excluded from this sample.

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Investigators

Michal Assaf, M.D.1,2

Affiliations

  1. Olin Center, Institute of Living at Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT, USA
  2. Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Karen Anderson, RN, Laura Miller and Christina Wong for their help in collecting the data, and Gregory Book for his help in organizing and uploading the data to ABIDE.

Funding

  • Autism Speaks (to M.A.).
  • Hartford Hospital (to M.A)

Publications

  • Assaf M, Jagannathan K, Calhoun V, Miller L, Stevens MC, Sahl R, O'Boyle JG, Schultz RT and Pearlson G. (2010) Abnormal Functional Connectivity of Default Mode Sub-Networks in Autism Spectrum Disorders Patients. NeuroImage, 53: 247-256. PMID: 20621638
  • Results from parts of these data were also presented in the 2009 IMFAR annual meeting, Chicago, IL, May, 2009.

Sample Size

Total: 36 (10-24 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 20 (11-24 years)

Typical Controls (TC): 16 (10-23 years)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

We administered the ADOS and either the ADI-R or the SCQ-Lifetime form to all patients to confirm ASD diagnosis previously determined by various clinicians outside our institution. There was no other formal psychiatric evaluation as part of the research protocol. Accordingly, classification of ASD vs. non-ASD was based on the results of the assessment listed above and a DSM-TR classification is not available.

Typical Controls (TC)

ASD was ruled out in TC using a detailed health questionnaire. For most typical controls we also administered either the ADOS or the Social Communication Questionnaire lifetime form (scores were below diagnostic cutoffs- normal range)

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Patients were recruited from the Institute of Living outpatient services and psychiatric clinics in the greater Hartford, CT area; TC were recruited from the same catchment area by word of mouth and fliers.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (total IQ) using the WAIS-III and WISC-III using the block design and vocabulary subtests.

Additional Questionnaires

The Social Responsiveness Scale was administered to most patients younger than 18 years.

Handedness

Self-reported.

Medication Information

History of current psychoactive medication (here defined as use of psychoactive medications at the time of the scan) was collected. Information regarding medication use are reported in the phenotypic table attached (see link and/or database). We did not ask to withhold any medications prior to scan.

Exclusion Criteria Common to all Participants

All participants must have a full IQ > 70.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

We did not use any mock scan or additional preparation beyond standard written and verbal description at consent form time as well as verbal instructions prior to and during scan session.

MRI Scanning

During fMRI, participants were instructed to lie still with their eyes open, fixating on a centrally presented cross for 5 minutes and 15 seconds. We did not ask to withhold any medications prior to scan.

Data Quality Control

We submitted all collected data, regardless of movement/quality.

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Investigators

Damien Fair, PA-C, Ph.D.1, Joel Nigg, Ph.D.1

Affiliations

  1. Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA

Acknowledgements

Julia Grieser-Painter, Ph.D., Elizabeth Hawkey, B.A., Lisa Voltolina, B.A., Daniel Kriz, Psy.D., Bria Thurlow, B.A., Taciana G. Costa Dias, M.D., Corinne Stevens, B.A., David Grayson, B.A., Samuel Carpenter, B.A., Colleen Schmitt, M.S.W., and The Advanced Imaging Research Center led by Bill Rooney, Ph.D.

Funding

  • R00 MH091238 (Fair)
  • R01 MH096773 (Fair)
  • R01 MH086654 (Nigg)
  • Simon Foundation, Inc. (Nigg)

Publications

Data form typically developing controls included in this dataset were used for the following studies:

  • Mills, K.L., Bathula, D., Costa Dias, T.G., Iyer, S.P, Fenesy, M.C., Musser, E.D., Stevens, C.A., Thurlow, B.L., Carpenter, S.D., Nagel, B.J., Nigg, J.T., Fair, D.A. (2012) Altered Cortico-Striatal–Thalamic Connectivity in Relation to Spatial Working Memory Capacity in Children with ADHD. Frontiers in Psychiatry.
  • Shannon, B.J., Raichle, M.E., Snyder, A.Z., Fair, D.A., Mills, K.L., Zhang, D., Bache, K., Calhoun, V.D., Nigg, J.T., Nagel, B.J., Stevens, A.A., Kiehl, K.A.(2011) Premotor functional connectivity predicts impulsivity in juvenile offenders. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21709236 Proc Nat Acad Sci. 108(27):11241-5.
  • Fair, D.A., Posner, J., Nagel, B.J., Bathula, D., Costa Dias, T.G., Mills, K.L., Blythe, M.S., Giwa, A., Schmitt, C.F., Nigg, J.T. (2010). Atypical Default Network Connectivity in Youth with ADHD. Biol Psychiatry.
  • Fair, D.A., Bathula, D., Mills, K.L., Costa Dias, T.G., Blythe, M.S., Zhang ,D., Snyder, A.Z., Raichle, M.E., Stevens, A.A., Nigg, J.T., Nagel, B.J. (2010) Maturing thalamocortical functional connectivity across development. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 18;4:10.

Sample Size

Total: 28 (8.0-15.2 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 13 (8.0-15.2 years)

Typical Controls (TC): 15 (8.2-11.9 years)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Psychiatric diagnoses were based on evaluations with the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) administered to potential ASD participants, as well as a clinical review by a child psychiatrist and/or a neuropsychologist.

Typical Controls (TC)

Typically developing controls also received the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS-E) administered to a parent, parent Conners' Rating Scale-3rd Edition, ADHD Rating Scale and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and a clinical review by a child psychiatrist and/or a neuropsychologist who used these assessments to make the diagnosis.

Note: Some of the TC children included in this dataset also participated in studies from which data were contributed to the ADHD-200 (http://fcon_1000.projects.nitrc.org/indi/adhd200/) sample.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Participants with ASD were recruited through the Autism Program at the Child Development and Rehabilitation Center (CDRC at OHSU) and also through the community through flyers and other advertisements. Control participants were recruited with a combination of advertisements, mailings, and clinic outreach. Informed written consent/assent was obtained for all participants, and procedures complied with the Human Investigation Review Board at OHSU.

Estimated IQ

Intelligence was estimated with a reliable and valid three-subtest short form (Block Design, Vocabulary, and Information) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition providing a total IQ score.

Additional Interview

As part of another ongoing study, participants with ASD also received the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS-E) administered to a parent, parent Conners' Rating Scale-3rd Edition, ADHD Rating Scale and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (these data were not used to make the ASD diagnosis).

Handedness

Handedness was evaluated based on the Edinburgh handedness scale.

Medication Information

Children currently prescribed non-stimulant psychotropic medications (including atomoxetine) were excluded. Children prescribed short-acting stimulant medications were scanned after a minimum 5 half-life wash out (i.e., 24-48 hours depending on the preparation).

Exclusion Criteria Common to all Participants

Children were excluded if they did not meet criteria for ASD or TDC. Children were also excluded if parent report identified a history of neurological illness, chronic medical problems, sensorimotor handicap, intellectual disability, or significant head trauma (with loss of consciousness), or if they had evidence of psychotic disorder or bipolar disorder. Additional exclusion criteria for control children were: presence of conduct disorder or major depressive disorder. Participants were also excluded for an IQ < 80.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

On a separate visit, all participants were prepared for the MRI scan using a mock scanner. In addition, written and verbal description of the procedures at consent form time as well as verbal instructions prior to and during scan session were implemented.

MRI Scanning

Participants were scanned with eyes open; the protocol called for three sequential scans in the same session. Most, but not all participants were able to complete all three scans.

Data Quality Control

As datasets with a wide range of image quality/movement are being shared, only scans with the most extreme cases of movement were excluded from this sample.

Downloads

Investigators

Ralph-Axel Müller, Ph.D.1, Christopher Keown, B.S.1

Affiliations

  1. San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA

Acknowledgements

Aarti Nair, M.A. Dinesh Shukla, Ph.D., and Patti Shih, M.A., helped gathering relevant information in the database and contributed to data acquisition.

Funding

  • NIH R01-MH081023 (PI: Müller)

Publications

  • RC Cardinale et al.: Pervasive rightward asymmetry shifts of functional networks in Autism Spectrum Disorders (Submitted).

Sample Size

Total: 36 (8.7-17.2 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 14 (12.1-17.1 years)
(3 Autistic Disorder, 7 Asperger's Disorder, 2 Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, 2 Autism Spectrum Disorders of undetermined subtype)

Typical Controls (TC): 22 (8.7-16.9 years)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Clinical diagnoses were confirmed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and expert clinical judgment according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Children with ASD-related medical conditions (e.g., Fragile-X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis), and other neurological conditions (e.g., epilepsy, Tourette's Syndrome) were excluded.

Typical Controls (TC)

Participants in the TC group had no reported personal or family history of ASD as well as no reported history of any other neurological or psychiatric conditions. A phone screening was conducted to identify TC participants that met these criteria using a questionnaire developed within the lab.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Participants with ASD were recruited through a clinical facility (www.caresnpa.com) in collaboration with its director, Dr. Alan Lincoln, and through word of mouth. TC participants were recruited through IRB-approved advertisements, flyers, word of mouth, and from existing participant pools from previous projects. Informed assent and consent were obtained from all participants and their caregivers in accordance with the University of California, San Diego and San Diego State University Institutional Review Boards.

Estimated IQ

IQ scores (full, performance, and verbal IQ) were obtained for both groups of participants using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence.

Additional Questionnaires/Interviews

Other measures acquired include the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4th edition, Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4th edition, the Social Communication Questionnaire, the Social Responsiveness Scale, and the parent report version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Given the unfunded nature of the ABIDE effort, we have not been able to prepare these additional data for sharing.

Handedness

Hand preference was assessed with the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (Oldfield, 1971).

Medication Information

Information on current medication was collected at the time of evaluation using an in-house questionnaire. Participants were not asked to withhold treatment of psychoactive medication prior to the scan. Information in regards to psychoactive medication use is reported in the phenotypic dataset (see links to dataset and/or databases).

Exclusion Criteria Common to all Participants

Participants with permanent metal in their bodies (e.g., braces, ear gauges) and any other contraindications to MRI scan from both ASD and TC groups were excluded from the study.

References

  1. Beery, K.E., & Beery, N.A., 2010. Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration - Sixth Edition. NCS Pearson, Inc., Bloomington, MN.
  2. CConstantino, J.N., & Gruber, C.P., 2005. Social Responsiveness Scale. Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, CA.
  3. Dunn, L.M., & Dunn, D.M. (Ed.), 2007. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Fourth Edition. NCS Pearson, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.
  4. Gioia, G.A., Isquith, P.K., Guy, S.C., & Kenworthy, L., 2000. Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., Odessa, FL.
  5. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P.C., Risi, S. (Ed.), 1999. Autism Diagnotic Observation Schedule. Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, CA.
  6. Oldfield RC. The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh Inventory. Neuropsychologia. 1971;9:97-113.
  7. Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C., 2003a. Social Communication Questionnaire. Western Psychological Services.
  8. Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., & Lord, C., 2003b. Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised. Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, CA.
  9. Wechsler, D., 1999. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

In both ASD and TC groups, children and adolescents who had not previously participated in an fMRI study with success were trained in a mock scanning session at the UCSD Center for Functional MRI.

MRI Scanning

Imaging data were acquired on a GE 3T MR750 scanner with an 8-channel head coil at the UCSD Center for Functional MRI. Head movement was minimized with foam pillows around participants' heads. Functional T2*-weighted images were obtained using a single-shot gradient-recalled, echo-planar pulse sequence. One 6:10 minute resting-state scan was acquired consisting of 180 whole-brain volumes (TR: 2000ms; TE: 30ms; 3.4mm slice thickness; in-plane resolution 3.4mm2). Physiological measures of respiration and heart rate were also acquired during the scan using a BIOPAC respiratory effort transducer. Participants were instructed to keep their eyes directed on a cross-hair in the center of the projector, relax, and try not to fall asleep for the duration of the scan. High-resolution structural images were acquired with a standard FSPGR T1-weighted sequence (TR: 11.08ms; TE: 4.3ms; flip angle: 45°; FOV: 256mm; 256 x 256 matrix; 180 slices; 1mm3 resolution).

Data Quality Control

All data was shared regardless to movement/quality.

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Investigators

Marc Thioux, Ph.D.1, Leonardo Cerliani, Ph.D.1,2, Christian Keysers, Ph.D.1,2

Affiliations

  1. Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Royal Dutch Academy of Science (KNAW), Mebergdreef 47 - 1015 BA Amsterdam (NL)
  2. BCN NeuroImaging Center, University Medical Center Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, A. Deusinglaan 2 - 9713 AW Groningen (NL)

Acknowledgements

We thank the participants and their families, our scanner technicians (Anita Sibeijn-Kuiper and Judith Streurman), the MR physicists (Remco Renken, Hans Hoogduin and Jeroen Siero). We also thank Gareth Barker, Anne Hafkemeijer, Irene Perini, and Serge Rombouts for advice on image sequence improvement, as well the NeuroImaging Center of the University Medical Center Groningen - Rijksuniversiteit Groningen and The Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (NIN-KNAW), for hosting the research.

Funding

  • Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO) Cognitive Pilot Project (051.07.003)
  • NWO VIDI (452-04-305)
  • NWO Open Competition (400-08-089)
  • European Commission, Marie Curie Excellence Grant (MEXT-CT-2005-023253)
  • National Initiative for Brain and Cognition NIHC HCMI Functional Markers (056-13-014)
  • National Initiative for Brain and Cognition NIHC HCMI Simulation and TOM (056-13-017)
  • Netherlands Brain Foundation (KS 2010(1)-29)

Publications

  • In Preparation

Sample Size

Total: 30 (20-64 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 15 (22-64 years)
(2 Autistic Disorder, 7 Asperger's Disorder, 6 Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified)

Typical Controls (TC): 15 (20-41 years)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Inclusion criteria: Physically healthy individuals, Above 18 years of age, IQ in the normal range, DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders established by an experienced clinician

Typically Developing Controls (TDC)

Inclusion criteria: Physically healthy individuals, Above 18 years of age, IQ in the normal range. This information was collected through a questionnaire.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Participants with ASD were recruited through their clinicians or were contacted directly because they participated in a previous study. TC were recruited through advertisements in the local community. The study was approved by the local ethical committee.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (performance and/or verbal IQ) using the GIT (Groninger Intelligence Test)1. The GIT VIQ was computed based on the score on the vocabulary sub-scale. The GIT PIQ was computed based on the score on the arithmetic sub-scale. For participants without the GIT we obtained estimates of intelligence (full, performance, and verbal IQ) using all subtests of the WAIS-III.

Additional Questionnaires/Interviews

The Autism Quotient was administered to ensure the presence of substantial ASD symptoms. The total score of the AQ was computed and shared (see link to dataset and/or databases). Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Dutch version of the SCAN 2.1, by communication with the referring clinician, and through a self-report questionnaire from the participants.

Handedness

We used the 10-item Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. For each item, participants were asked if they use the right, the left, or both hands to complete a particular task. The sum of the right-hand responses minus the sum of the left hand responses divided by the total number of unilateral responses multiplied by 100 provided a total handedness score ranging from 100 (strongest right handedness) to -100 (strongest left handedness).

Medication Information

History of current medication use (here defined as use of psychoactive medications within one month) was collected just before scanning. Information regarding medication use is reported in the phenotypic table attached (see link to data and/or to databases). We did not ask participants to withhold any medication use prior to and at time of scan.

Body Mass Index

For some participants, we collected body weight and height to compute body mass index.

Exclusion Criteria Common to all Participants

Neurological problems (including epilepsy), MR incompatible implants in the body (e.g. pacemaker), Risk of metal splinters in the eyes, Tattoos with ink that may contain metal particles, Use of drugs that may influence the task performance (e.g. amphetamines, THC), Claustrophobia, (Suspected) Pregnancy, The wish not to be informed of brain abnormalities that may be noticed in the scan

References

  1. Luteijn F, Bartelds D (2004): GIT 2: Groninger intelligentie test 2:Harcourt.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

We did not use any mock scan or additional preparation beyond standard written and verbal description during consent/assent, as well as verbal instructions prior to and during scan session.

MRI Scanning

Participants were instructed to "relax and don't think about anything in particular, try to move as little as possible, and keep your eyes closed." The back-projection screen was turned off, and the light in the scanner room was dimmed.

Data Quality Control

We submitted all collected data, regardless of movement/quality.

Downloads

Investigators

Lucina Uddin, Ph.D.1, Kaustubh Supekar, Ph.D.1, Vinod Menon, Ph.D.1

Affiliations

  1. Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge Charles Lynch for assistance with data organization.

Funding

  • National Institute of Mental Health Career Development Award [K01MH092288] to L.U.
  • Stanford Institute for Neuro-Innovation & Translational Neurosciences
  • National Institutes of Health [DC011095, MH084164] to V.M.

Publications

  • Papers are currently under review, nothing in press.

Sample Size

Total: 40 (7.5-12.9 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 20 (7.5-12.9 years)

Typical Controls (TC): 20 (7.8-12.4 years)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Children with ASD received a diagnosis based on scores from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and/or the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) administered by a research reliable clinician. Children with ASD were screened through a parent phone interview and excluded if they had any history of known genetic, psychiatric, or neurological disorders (e.g., Fragile X syndrome or Tourette's syndrome), or were currently prescribed antipsychotic medication.

Typical Controls (TC)

Participants were recruited in the San Francisco Bay Area through advertisements. Typically developing children were screened and excluded if they or a first-degree relative had developmental, language, learning, neurological, psychiatric disorders, or psychiatric medication usage, or if the child met the clinical criteria for a childhood disorder on the Child Symptom Inventory-Fourth Edition or Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

See above. All participants/parents signed written consent/assent approved by the Stanford University Institutional Review Board.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (total, performance and verbal IQ) using the four subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence and are shared here (see links to dataset and databases).

Additional Questionnaires/Interviews

All participants underwent a battery of standardized neuropsychological assessments including the WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-3rd Edition or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th Edition) or WASI (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence), and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT, 2nd edition). Estimates of full scale, verbal and performance IQ were determined using the WASI, and are shared here (see links to dataset and/or databases).

Handedness

Determined using an abbreviated version of the Edinburgh Handedness Test. Scored according to the instructions.

Medication Information

Information regarding current psychoactive medication was collected at the initial phone screening. We did not ask participants to withhold any medication use prior to scan. Medication status at the time (day) of scanning was not recorded.

Exclusion Criteria Common to all Participants

Any child with Full Scale IQ < 70, as measured by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), was excluded from the study.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

We did not use any mock scan or additional preparation beyond standard written and verbal description at time of consent/assent, as well as verbal instructions prior to and during scan session. Participants were asked to view the following video prior to the scan session: http://mathbrain.stanford.edu/?q=brainimaging.

MRI Scanning

For our rest fMRI data, we asked participants to keep their eyes closed.

Data Quality Control

We submitted data that has been quality controlled for various artifacts including movement.

Downloads

Investigators

Louise Gallagher, MB, MRCPsych, Ph.D.1, Sonja Delmonte1, Joshua Balsters, Ph.D.1

Affiliations

  1. Department of Psychiatry and Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland

Acknowledgements

The Centre For Advanced Medical Imaging (CAMI), St. James's Hospital, Dublin.

Funding

  • The Meath Foundation, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, incorporating the National Children's Hospital (AMNCH), Tallaght, and travel fellowship by the Kyulan Family Foundation.

Publications

  • Task based functional MRI data acquired from the same participants was presented at the annual International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR, May 2012; Toronto, Canada).

Sample Size

Total: 49 (12.0-25.9 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 24 (12.0-25.9 years)
(10 Autistic Disorder, 7 Asperger's Disorder, 7 Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified)

Typical Controls (TC): 25 (12.0-25.7 years)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Males (aged 12-25 years)
  • Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI; Lord et al., 1994) for autism.
  • Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; Lord et al., 2000) criteria for ASD.
  • DSM-IV-TR criteria for Autism Disorder, Asperger's Syndrome or PDD-NOS established by consensus diagnosis.
  • All right handed.

Typical Controls (TC)

  • Right handed male adolescents, age and IQ matched to the ASD sample.
  • Absence of any psychiatric, neurological and genetic disorders including dyslexia or dyspraxia.
  • Presence of a first degree relative who has been diagnosed with ASD was an exclusionary criterion for a potential TC.
  • A raw score above 50 on the Social Responsiveness Scale- Child version (SRS) or above 10 on the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) were also exclusionary criteria.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

ASD participants were recruited through an associated genetics research program, clinical services, schools and advocacy groups. Controls were recruited through schools, the university and volunteer websites. Ethical approval was obtained from the St. James's Hospital/AMNCH (ref: 2010/09/07) and the Linn Dara CAMHS Ethics Committees (ref: 2010/12/07). Written informed consents/assents were obtained from all participants and their parents (when under 18 years of age).

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (total, performance and verbal IQ) using the four subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, or the Wechsler Intelligence scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) - four subtest or full battery.

Handedness

All participants were right handed based on participant and/or parent report.

Medication Information

Information regarding use of psychoactive medication was based on participant/parent report.

Exclusion Criteria Common to all Participants

  • Left handed subjects.
  • IQ < 70 as assessed by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) or Wechsler Intelligence scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV).
  • A history of neurological, psychiatric, or genetic disorder (e.g. Anxiety, Depression, a psychotic disorder, Obesessive Compulsive Disorder, Epilepsy/seizures, Fragile X syndrome, Tourettes Syndrome, or Tuberous Sclerosis).
  • Current use of psychotropic medication.
  • Substance misuse.
  • Counterindications to MRI.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

Participants were prepared for scanning using written and verbal description during consent/assent as well as verbal instructions prior to and during the scan session. Additionally, participants were given the option to try the mock scanner and to listen to an audio recording of the scanner noise if they so wished.

MRI Scanning

MRI data were collected on a Philips 3T Achieva MRI Scanner at the Centre for Advanced Medical Imaging (CAMI), St. James's Hospital, Dublin. Subjects lay supine in the fMRI scanner during image acquisition and were instructed to remain as still as possible. During the resting state scan, particpants were instructed to keep their eyes closed and to rest for five minutes.

Data Quality Control

Data were shared regardless of movement/quality.

Downloads

Investigators

Mirella Dapretto, Ph.D.1,2,3,4, Susan Bookheimer, Ph.D.2,3,4,5, Jeffrey D. Rudie1,3,4,5

Affiliations

  1. Ahmanson-Lovelace Brain Mapping Center, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  2. Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  3. Department of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  4. Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  5. David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Acknowledgements

Leanna Hernandez, Natalie Colich, Devora Beck-Pancer, Zarrar Shehzad, Jesse Brown.

Funding

  • UCLA Autism Center of Excellence
  • NICHD P50 HD055784
  • NIMH 1R01 HD065280-01

Publications

  • Rudie J.D., Hernandez L.M., Brown J.A., Beck-Pancer D., Colich, N., Gorrindo P., Geschwind D.H., Bookheimer, S.Y., Levitt P., Dapretto M., (In Press). Autism-Associated Variant in MET Impacts Functional and Structural Brain Networks. Neuron
  • Rudie J.D., J.A. Brown. D. Beck-Pancer, Hernandez L.M., Dennis E.L., Thompson P.M., Bookheimer, Dapretto M., (Under Review at Neuroimage Clinical). Altered Functional and Structural Brain Network Organization in Autism.

Sample Size

Total: 82 (8.4-17.9 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 49 (8.4-17.9 years)
(49 Autistic Disorder)

Typical Controls (TC): 33 (9.2-17.9 years)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

In regards to inclusion criteria, ASD participants had to meet criteria for ASD on the ADOS or for autism on the ADI-R.

Typical Controls (TC)

TC participants had no history of any genetic, neurological, psychiatric, or developmental disorders. In addition, they could not have a first degree relative with an ASD diagnosis.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Both groups were recruited through a variety of methods including the dissemination of flyers throughout the greater Los Angeles area (via community/youth organizations, schools, etc), as well as through radio ads, and word of mouth.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (total, performance, and verbal IQ) using the four subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) or the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV, Full Scale).

Handedness

Handedness was assessed via parental reports on a questionnaire.

Medication Information

Our information about medications is collected at the time of the scan. We do not ask participants to be off stimulants for the scan.

Exclusion Criteria Common to all Participants

Participants had to have no history of seizures, no loss of consciousness for more than 5 minutes, no tic disorder or involuntary movements, nor any known genetic, neurological, or psychiatric disorder.

Criteria Common to all Participants

All participants had to be fully verbal.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

Most participants (particularly those younger than 10 yrs) underwent a mock scan prior to the actual fMRI session. Older participants (and/or participants who previously underwent MRI) typically received only standard written and verbal description at consent/assent time, as well as verbal instructions prior to and during scan session.

MRI Scanning

Before the resting-state scan participants were instructed as follows: "Relax and think about whatever you want. Keep your eyes open and keep your head still." A white screen with a black fixation cross in the middle of the screen was presented. For some participants, the MPRAGE and resting state scans were performed on separate dates. For this reason, when age at MPRAGE is listed, the age at resting scan differs. This information is specified for each participant in the shared phenotypic dataset (see attachment below).

Data Quality Control

We provided all data regardless of motion criteria.

Downloads

Investigators

Susan Y. Bookheimer, Ph.D.1,3,4,5, Mirella Dapretto, Ph.D.2,3,4,5, Jeffrey D. Rudie2,3,4,5

Affiliations

  1. Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  2. Ahmanson-Lovelace Brain Mapping Center, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  3. Department of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  4. Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  5. David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Acknowledgements

Leanna Hernandez, Natalie Colich, Devora Beck-Pancer, Zarrar Shehzad, Jesse Brown.

Funding

  • UCLA Autism Center of Excellence
  • NICHD P50 HD055784
  • NIMH 1R01 HD065280-01

Publications

  • Rudie J.D., Hernandez L.M., Brown J.A., Beck-Pancer D., Colich, N., Gorrindo P., Geschwind D.H., Bookheimer, S.Y., Levitt P., Dapretto M., (In Press). Autism-Associated Variant in MET Impacts Functional and Structural Brain Networks. Neuron
  • Rudie J.D., J.A. Brown. D. Beck-Pancer, Hernandez L.M., Dennis E.L., Thompson P.M., Bookheimer, Dapretto M., (Under Review at Neuroimage Clinical). Altered Functional and Structural Brain Network Organization in Autism.

Sample Size

Total: 27 (9.8-16.5 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 13 (10.0-16.5 years)
(13 Autistic Disorder)

Typical Controls (TC): 14 (9.8-13.6 years)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

In regards to inclusion criteria, participants with ASD had to meet criteria for any ASD on the ADOS or for autism on the ADI-R.

Typical Controls (TC)

TC participants had no history of any genetic, neurological, psychiatric, and/or developmental disorders. In addition, they could not have a first degree relative with an ASD diagnosis.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Both groups were recruited through a variety of methods including the dissemination of flyers throughout the greater Los Angeles area (via community/youth organizations, schools, etc), as well as through radio ads and word of mouth.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (total, performance, and verbal IQ) using the four subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV, Full Scale).

Handedness

Handedness was assessed via parental reports on a questionnaire.

Medication Information

Our information about medications was collected at the time of the scan. We did not ask participants to withhold stimulants for the scan.

Exclusion Criteria Common to all Participants

Participants had to have no history of seizures, no loss of consciousness for more than 5 minutes, no tic disorder or involuntary movements, nor any known genetic or psychiatric disorder.

Criteria Common to all Participants

All participants had to be fully verbal.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

Most participants (particularly those younger than 10 yrs of age) underwent a mock scan prior to the actual fMRI session. Older participants (and/or participants who previously underwent MRI) typically received only standard written and verbal description at consent/assent time, as well as verbal instructions prior to and during scan session.

MRI Scanning

Before the resting-state scan, participants were instructed as follows: "Relax and think about whatever you want. Keep your eyes open and keep your head still" A white screen with a black fixation cross in the middle was presented. For some participants, the MPRAGE and resting state scans were performed on separate dates. For this reason, when age at MPRAGE is listed, the age at resting scan differs. This information is specified for each participant in the shared phenotypic dataset (see attachment below).

Data Quality Control

We provided all data regardless of motion criteria.

Downloads

Investigators

Kaat Alaerts, Ph.D.1, Nicole Wenderoth, Ph.D.1

Affiliations

  1. KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to all the subjects who voluntarily participated in this research and to Ron Peeters for his help in data collection.

Funding

  • Flanders Fund for Scientific Research (FWO projects G.0758.10)
  • FWO postdoctoral Research fellowship grant (KA)
  • Grant P6/29 from the Interuniversity Attraction Poles program of the Belgian federal government.
  • This study has been conducted in collaboration with the Leuven Autism Research Consortium (LAuRes), funded by the Research Council of the University of Leuven (IDO/08/013).

Publications

  • Conference Abstract. Underconnectivity of STS predicts socio-cognitive deficits in Autism. Alaerts K., Woolley D., Swinnen S., Wenderoth N. 18th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Beijing, China (June 10-14, 2012)

Sample Size

Total: 29 (18-32 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 14 (18-32 years)

Typical Controls (TC): 15 (18-32 years)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Participants with ASD were selected from a clinical sample, diagnosed based on DSM-IV-TR criteria by a multidisciplinary team. Inclusion criteria for the ASD group were: 1) a diagnosis of autistic disorder according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria and 2) raw scores above 60 on the Social Responsiveness scale (SRS) (Adult Version, parent-reported)1,2,3.

Typical Controls (TC)

TC participants were included to match the participants with ASD in a group-wise matter relative to age, sex, and IQ (total, verbal and performance). The absence of any reported (via a questionnaire developed in the lab and an unstructured clinical interview) history of neurological or psychiatric disorder was taken as main inclusion criterion for selecting the TC participants.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Participants with an Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were recruited from the Expertise Centrum Autism (ECA) at the Leuven University Hospital from a pool of subjects who had previously participated in other research studies at the KU Leuven. TC were recruited from the local community. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to the experiment. Consent forms and study design were approved by the local Ethics Committee for Biomedical Research at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in accordance to the Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki).

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (total, performance, and verbal IQ) using the Ward 7-subtest short-form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III4-6.

Additional Questionnaires

The Social Responsiveness Scale-Adult version (SRS-A; self-reported, SRS) and the Autism Quotient (AQ; self-reported) were also administered to all participants6. Both AQ total and SRS-A raw total scores are included in the current dataset (see link to dataset and/or databases).

Handedness

Handedness was assessed based on self-reports.

Medication Information

Data on medical status/history (any type of medication) were obtained by the participating individual. Participants on psychopharmacological treatment did not take their regular medication on the day of the scan. Information on psychoactive medications is reported in this dataset.

Exclusion Criteria Common to all Participants

Exclusion criteria for participants with ASD and for TC were: history of epilepsy, any neurological or psychiatric disorder (other than ASD).

References

  1. Constantino JN, Davis SA, Todd RD, Schindler MK, Gross MM, et al. (2003) Validation of a brief quantitative measure of autistic traits: comparison of the social responsiveness scale with the autism diagnostic interview-revised. J Autism Dev Disord 33:427-33.
  2. Constantino JN, Gruber CP, Davis S, Hayes S, Passanante N, et al. (2004) The factor structure of autistic traits. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 45: 719-726.
  3. De la Marche W, Steyaert J, Scholte EM, Dorst MH, van Berckelaer-Onnes A, Noens I. Social Responsiveness Scale: Standardization and Validation of the Dutch Adult Version. IMFAR: International Meeting for Autism Research (Chicago, May 7 - 9, 2009)
  4. Wechsler D (1997) WAIS-III: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-third edition administration and scoring manual. The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio
  5. Ryan JJ, Ward LC (1999) Validity, reliability, and standard errors of measurement for two seven-subtest short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. Psychol Assess 11: 207-211.
  6. Girard TA, Axelrod BN, Wilkins LK (2010) Comparison of WAIS-III Short Forms for Measuring Index and Full-Scale Scores. Assess 17: 400-405.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

A mock scanner was used to familiarize subjects with the scanning environment, in addition to the standard written and verbal description at consent/assent. Verbal instructions were also provided prior to the actual scan session.

MRI Scanning

Anatomical and resting state fMRI scans were acquired on a 3.0 Tesla Philips MR scanner (Best, The Netherlands) with an 8-channel phased-array head coil. Scan sessions started with the acquisition of the anatomical followed by the resting state scan (also followed by two task-related fMRI runs). During the resting state scan, participants were instructed to relax, fixate on a white cross (against a black background) and think of nothing in particular.

Data Quality Control

Data was shared regardless of movement/quality.

Downloads

Investigators

Stefan Sunaert, M.D., Ph.D.1, Judith Verhoeven1

Affiliations

  1. Translational MRI, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Leuven, Belgium

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to all participants and healthy volunteers that made this research possible, to Ron Peeters and Marjolein Verly, for their help in data collection and upload.

Funding

  • Fund for Scientific Research-Flanders (F.W.O.) (research grant G.0354.06, doctoral mandate to Judith Verhoeven, research grant 1841313N, senior clinical investigator grant to Stefan Sunaert)
  • Belgian Inter University Attraction Pole (grant 6/29)
  • KU Leuven Research Council (grant IDO/08/013)

Publications

  • No publications associated to the shared data.

Sample Size

Total: 35 (12.1-16.9 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 15 (12.1-16.8 years)

Typical Controls (TC): 20 (12.2-16.9 years)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Inclusion criteria for the ASD group were 1) a diagnosis of autistic disorder or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria (APA 2000) 2) raw scores equal to or greater than 15 on the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) (Rutter, Le Couteur et al. 2003) and 3) raw scores above 60 on the Social Responsiveness scale (SRS) (Constantino, Davis et al. 2003). Participants were selected from a clinical sample of children with previous diagnosis made by a multidisciplinary team including a pediatric neurologist/psychiatrist and based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria. The SCQ and SRS were used to ensure the current presence of substantial ASD symptoms. Participants were excluded if there was a chronic medical illness, a metabolic disorder or an abnormal neurological examination, if ASD was associated with a genetic syndrome or if conventional MRI was found to be abnormal.

Typical Controls (TC)

Typically developing controls had no history of neurological or psychiatric conditions nor a current medical, developmental or psychiatric diagnosis. They did not report any language problems. Their parents completed the SCQ and SRS questionnaires to exclude the presence of substantial ASD symptoms.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Participants with an Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were recruited from the Expertise Centrum Autism (ECA) at the Leuven University Hospital from a pool of subjects who had previously participated in other research studies at the KU Leuven. Typically developing controls were actively recruited. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants and their parents prior to the experiment. The local Ethics Committee for Biomedical Research at the KU Leuven approved consent forms and study design in accordance to the Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki).

Estimated IQ

Participants were assessed with an abbreviated version of the Dutch Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition to estimate IQ (Kort, Schittekatte et al. 2005). The abbreviated intelligence test involved the subtests Block Design and Picture Completion to estimate a performance IQ (PIQ) and the subtests Vocabulary and Similarities to estimate verbal IQ (VIQ).

Handedness

Handedness was assessed with the Dutch version of the Oldfield Handedness Questionnaire (Oldfield 1971) in all participants.

Medication Information

History of treatment with psychoactive medications is not available.

Exclusion Criteria Common to all Participants

Participants were excluded if there was a chronic medical illness, a metabolic disorder or an abnormal neurological examination, if ASD was associated with a genetic syndrome or if conventional MRI was found to be abnormal.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

Participants were given access to a specific training and instruction video http://www.kuleuven.ac.be/radiology/FTP/Instructie_MRI.wmv. We also used standard written and verbal description at consent form time as well as verbal instructions prior to and during scan session.

MRI Scanning

Anatomical and resting state fMRI scans were acquired on a 3.0 Tesla Philips MR scanner (Best, The Netherlands) with an 8-channel phased-array head coil. Scan sessions started with the acquisition of the anatomical scan, followed by two task-related fMRI runs, a DTI scan and finally, the resting state scan.

Data Quality Control

Data was shared regardless of movement/quality.

Downloads

Investigators

Christopher S. Monk, Ph.D.1, Jillian Lee Wiggins, M.S.1, Scott Peltier, Ph.D.2, Catherine Lord, Ph.D.2

Affiliations

  1. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
  2. Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank our research assistants, the University of Michigan Functional MRI Center, and the families for participating.

Funding

  • Autism Speaks (CSM)
  • NIH U19 HD035482 and NIH MH066496 (CL)
  • Autism Speaks Pre-doctoral Fellowship 4773 (JLW)
  • Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR) Pre-doctoral Fellowship UL1RR024986 (JLW)
  • NIH R21 MH079871 (SP)

Publications

  • Monk CS, Peltier SJ, Wiggins JL, Weng SJ, Carrasco M, Risi S, et al. (2009): Abnormalities of intrinsic functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorders. Neuroimage, 47(2), 764-772.
  • Weng SJ, Wiggins JL, Peltier SJ, Carrasco M, Risi S, Lord C, et al. (2010): Alterations of resting state functional connectivity in the default network in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Brain Res, 1313, 202-214.
  • Wiggins JL, Peltier SJ, Ashinoff S, Weng SJ, Carrasco M, Welsh RC, et al. (2011): Using a self-organizing map algorithm to detect age-related changes in functional connectivity during rest in autism spectrum disorders. Brain Res, 1380, 187-197.
  • Wiggins JL, Bedoyan JK, Peltier SJ, Ashinoff S, Carrasco M, Weng SJ, et al. (2012): The impact of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) genotype on the development of resting-state functional connectivity in children and adolescents: A preliminary report. Neuroimage.

Sample Size

Total: 110 (8.2-19.2 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 55 (8.5-18.6 years)
(45 Autistic Disorder, 7 Asperger's Disorder, 1 Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, 2 Autism Spectrum Disorders of undetermined subtype)

Typical Controls (TC): 55 (8.2-19.2 years)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Diagnosis of ASD was based on the Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised (ADI-R)9 and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)10, as well as clinical consensus. ASD youth must have completed a valid Module 3 or 4 of the ADOS (i.e., had fluent language). Either verbal or non-verbal IQ was required to be ≥85. Age was required to be at least 7 years. Those taking psychotropic medications were not excluded, since medication rates are high in ASD12 and doing so would result in an unrepresentative sample.

Typical Controls (TC)

TC were included if either verbal or non-verbal IQ was ≥85 and were aged at least 7 years. TC were excluded if they received a score of 10 or higher on the Social Communication Questionnaire14 or a score of 6 or higher on the Obsessive/Compulsive subscale of the Spence Children's Anxiety scale (SCAS)16. This cutoff is lower than the ASD cutoff to rule out controls on the borderline with ASD.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Recruitment and diagnosis of participants with ASD was accomplished through Dr. Cathy Lord's University of Michigan Autism and Communication's Disorder Center (UMACC). Written informed consent and/or assent was obtained from participants and their parents. Healthy controls were recruited from the community through flyers. Dr. Monk has an approved IRB protocol, and all participants signed written consent/assent forms.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (performance and verbal IQ) using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)6 and the Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices13. Tests varied due to the participants' study history. Full IQ estimates were based on the average of the PIQ and VIQ scores available and provided in this dataset.

Additional Questionnaires/Interviews

To further characterize the sample, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist2, Social Responsiveness Scale - child version3, and the Social Communication Questionnaire14. Children completed the Child Depression Inventory8, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children11, Spence Children's Anxiety Scales16, and Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised7. Given the unfunded nature of the ABIDE effort, we have not been able to prepare these additional data for sharing.

Handedness

Handedness was based on self-report.

Medication Information

Information about current use of medications was collected, though patients were not asked to stop medication for the scan day. Current use was defined as taking medication(s) at the time of the initial interview, which took place within 3 weeks prior to the scan.

Exclusion Criteria Common to all Participants

Based on parent report, potential participants in both the ASD and TC groups were excluded if they had history of head trauma or a neurological disorder (including seizures). Participants with ASD were excluded if they had a diagnosis of Psychosis or Bipolar Disorder. Participants were excluded if they presented any condition that increased risk or was contraindicated for MRI.

References

  1. Achenbach TM (1997): Manual for the Young Adult Behavior Checklist and Young Adult Self-Report. Burlington: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry.
  2. Achenbach TM & Edelbrock C (1981): Behavioral problems and competencies reported by parents of normal and disturbed children aged 4- 16. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 46, 88.
  3. Constantino et al. (2003): Validation of a brief measure of autistic traits: Comparison of the social responsiveness scale with the autism diagnostic interview-revised. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 427-433.
  4. Constantino JN & Gruber CP (2005): Social Responsiveness Scale. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
  5. Constantino JN & Gruber CP (2005): Social Responsiveness Scale. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
  6. Dunn LM & Dunn LM (1997): Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (3rd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.
  7. Foa EB, Coles M, Huppert JD, Pasupuleti RV, Franklin ME, March J (2010): Development and validation of a child version of the obsessive compulsive inventory. Behavioral Therapy 41(1):121-32.
  8. Kovacs M (1992): Children's Depression Inventory. New York: Multi-Health Systems.
  9. Lord C, Rutter M, Le Couteur A (1994): Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders 24(5):659-85.
  10. Lord C, Risi S, Lambrecht L, Cook EH Jr., Leventhal BL, DiLavore PC, Pickles A, Rutter M (2000): The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: a standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders 30(3):205-23.
  11. March JS (1997): Manual for the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.
  12. Oswald DP, Sonenklar NA (2007): Medication use among children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 17(3):348-55.
  13. Raven JC (1960): Guide to using the Standard Progressive Matrices. London, UK: Lewis.
  14. Rutter M, Bailey A & Lord C (2003): Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Western Psychological Services.
  15. Sparrow SS, Cicchetti DV, & Balla DA (2005): Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (2nd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service Inc.
  16. Spence SH (1997): Structure of anxiety symptoms among children: a confirmatory factor-analytic study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 280–297.
  17. Wechsler D. (1999): Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence manual. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

To help participants acclimate to the environment, they were invited to practice in an MRI simulator. In collaboration with clinical psychologists at UMACC, we devised a protocol for acclimating youth with ASD that has been effective with ASD participants to date. Participants were gradually exposed to the MRI experience in the MRI simulator, which included a full-sized replica of a scanner, recordings of the sounds an MRI makes, and a projector connected to a computer screen so that the participant could practice lying still inside the simulator.

MRI Scanning

MRI images were acquired using a 3 Tesla GE Signa scanner located at the UM Functional MRI Laboratory (http://www.umich.edu/~fmri). Participants underwent a 10 minute, eyes-open, resting acquisition in which they looked at a fixation cross in the middle of the screen. Participants were instructed to let their minds wander and to not think about anything in particular while they looked at the cross. Slice acquisition was sequential ascending.

Data Quality Control

All data was shared regardless to movement/quality.

Downloads

Investigators

Scott Peltier, Ph.D.1, Catherine Lord, Ph.D.2, Christopher S. Monk, Ph.D.1, Jillian Lee Wiggins, M.S.1, Susan Risi, Ph.D.1, Opal Ousley, Ph.D.3

Affiliations

  1. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
  2. Weill‐Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA
  3. Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA

Acknowledgements

Samantha Edwards, Keith Newnham, and Kelly Clark, University of Michigan

Funding

  • Autism Speaks (CM)
  • NIH U19 HD035482 and MH066496 (CL)
  • Autism Speaks Pre-doctoral Fellowship 4773 (JW)
  • Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR) Pre-doctoral Fellowship UL1RR024986 (JW)
  • NIH R21 MH079871 (SP)

Publications

  • Monk, C. S., Peltier, S. J., Wiggins, J. L., Weng, S. J., Carrasco, M., Risi, S., et al. (2009). Abnormalities of intrinsic functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorders. Neuroimage, 47(2), 764-772.
  • Weng, S. J., Wiggins, J. L., Peltier, S. J., Carrasco, M., Risi, S., Lord, C., et al. (2010). Alterations of resting state functional connectivity in the default network in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Brain Res, 1313, 202-214.
  • Wiggins, J. L., Bedoyan, J. K., Peltier, S. J., Ashinoff, S., Carrasco, M., Weng, S. J., et al. (2012). The mpact of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) genotype on the development of resting-state functional connectivity in children and adolescents: A preliminary report. Neuroimage.
  • Wiggins, J. L., Peltier, S. J., Ashinoff, S., Weng, S. J., Carrasco, M., Welsh, R. C., et al. (2011). Using a self-organizing map algorithm to detect age-related changes in functional connectivity during rest in autism spectrum disorders. Brain Res, 1380, 187-197.

Sample Size

Total: 35 (12.8-28.8 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 13 (12.8-17.4 years)

Typical Controls (TC): 22 (13.3-28.8 years)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Diagnosis of Asperger's Disorder/high functioning autism (HFA) is based on the Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised (ADI-R)4 and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)5 and clinician's consensus. Verbal IQ must be ≥80 for participants with ASD and age must be at least 13 years old. Adolescents with ASD must have completed a valid Module 3 or 4 of the ADOS (i.e., has fluent language).

Typical Controls (TC)

Verbal IQ must be ≥80 and age must be at least 13 years old.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Recruitment and diagnosis of the participants with ASD was accomplished through Dr. Catherine Lord's University of Michigan Autism and Communication's Disorder Center (UMACC). Written informed consent and/or assent was obtained from participants and their parents, if minors. Dr. Peltier has an approved IRB protocol. Healthy controls were recruited from the community through flyers.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (performance and verbal IQ, and when for some participants FIQ) using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT; VIQ)2 and the Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices (PIQ)6, and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence (WASI; VIQ, PIQ, FIQ)8. The WASI was administered to measure cognitive functioning to those participants who had not previously undergone an IQ test at UMACC. Thus tests used vary due to participant study history. For those participants who only had VIQ and PIQ measures, FIQ estimates were based on the average of the PIQ and VIQ scores available and provided in this dataset.

Additional Questionnaires

We further characterize the sample using several questionnaires. For adolescents we asked the parents to complete the Young Adult (Child) Behavior Checklist1, Social Responsiveness Scale-Child version3, and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II)7. For adults (>18 years)screening for clinically-significant symptoms was based on self-report on the Achenbach behavior checklists and the Conners rating scales (i.e., self-report was used for adult subjects; parental report was used for minor subjects). Given the unfunded nature of the ABIDE effort, we have not been able to prepare these additional data for sharing.

Handedness

Handedness was based on self-report.

Medication Information

Information about current use of medications was collected, patients were not asked to stop medication for the scan day. Current use was defined as medications taking at the time of the initial interview, which took place within 3 weeks prior to the scan.

Exclusion Criteria Common to all Participants

History of head trauma, psychosis, bipolar disorder, or a neurological disorder (including seizures) were exclusionary criteria for all participants. Participants are excluded if they present any condition that increases risk or is contraindicated for MRI.

References

  1. Achenbach TM (1997): Manual for the Young Adult Behavior Checklist and Young Adult Self-Report. Burlington: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry.
  2. Dunn LM & Dunn LM (1997): Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (3rd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.
  3. Constantino JN & Gruber CP (2005): Social Responsiveness Scale. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
  4. Lord C, Rutter M, & Le Couteur A (1994): Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders 24(5):659-85.
  5. Lord C, Risi S, Lambrecht L, Cook EH, Jr., Leventhal BL, DiLavore PC, Pickles A, & Rutter M (2000): The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: a standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders 30(3):205-23.
  6. Raven JC (1960): Guide to using the Standard Progressive Matrices. London, UK: Lewis.
  7. Sparrow SS, Cicchetti DV, & Balla DA (2005): Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (2nd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service Inc.
  8. Wechsler D (1999): Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence manual. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

We did not use any mock scan or additional preparation beyond standard written and verbal description at consent form time as well as verbal instructions prior to and during scan session.

MRI Scanning

MRI images are acquired using a 3 Tesla GE Signa scanner located at the UM Functional MRI Laboratory (http://www.umich.edu/~fmri). Participants underwent a 10 minute, eyes-open, resting acquisition in which they looked at a fixation cross in the middle of the screen. Participants were instructed to let their minds wander and to not think about anything in particular while they looked at the cross. Slice acquisition was sequential ascending.

Data Quality Control

All data was shared regardless to movement/quality.

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Investigators

Beatriz Luna, Ph.D.1, Kirsten O'Hearn, Ph.D.1

Affiliations

  1. University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge Andrew Lynn, Nancy Minshew, Patricia McCarroll, Catherine Wright and the staff of Center for Excellence in Autism Research (CEFAR) and the Autism Center of Excellence (ACE), Mark Vignone and the faculty who support the Neuroimaging Center (NIC), and our fellow workers at the Laboratory of Neurocognitive Development (LNCD).

Funding

  • Autism Speaks Grant 04593 (BL)
  • KO1 NIMH MH081191 (KO)
  • NIMH MH67924 (BL)
  • NIH HD55748 (NM)

Publications

  • No publications associated with these data.

Sample Size

Total: 57 (9.3-35.2 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 30 30 (9.3-35.2 years)

Typical Controls (TC): 27 (9.4-33.2 years)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Participants included individuals from 7 to 35 years of age, with a well-characterized Autistic Disorder. The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R; Lord et al., 1994) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-General (ADOS-G; Lord et al., 2000), as well as expert clinical opinion, were used to diagnose autism. Participants with Pervasive Developmental Disorder- Not otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) or Asperger's syndrome (i.e., no language delay evident) were excluded, as were those with full-scale IQ scores < 80 on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999) or those known to have an associated disorder such as tuberous sclerosis or fragile-X syndrome.

Typical Controls (TC)

Typical controls were healthy individuals, with no history of head trauma, birth complications, seizures, or psychiatric disorder. TC matched individually to the participants with autism on age (within 1.5 y in children, 3.5 y in adults), full-scale IQ (within 12 points) and gender.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Individuals with Autistic Disorder were referred from the Center for Excellence in Autism Research (CEFAR) and the Autism Center of Excellence (ACE). TC were recruited from previous studies at the LNCD or by fliers and announcements. Informed consent and assent was obtained from all participants and/or their legal guardians prior to the study, which was approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Pittsburgh.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (total, performance, and verbal IQ) using the four subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI).

Handedness

Handedness was collected from the ACE project, which used the Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire.

Medication Information

We collected history of current psychoactive medication at the time of screening (within a year form the scanning session), and again at the time of the scan. Here we reported information on psychoactive medication collected at the time of the scan (see link to data file and/or databases). We did not ask participants to withhold any medication use prior to scan.

Exclusion Criteria Common to all Participants

Head injury with loss of consciousness for over an hour; Epilepsy; Meningitis; Encephalitis; Diabetes only for participants 18 years of age and older; an IQ < 80; known genetic or neurological disorder.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

Upon arrival to the imaging center, participants are screened for metal and placed in a model MRI scanner. MRI sounds from the real scanner are played by an audio system while the subject is in the mock scanner. Next, participants are instructed on how to perform a task administered in the scanner before the resting state session.

MRI Scanning

While in the scanner participants completed a memory tasks, followed by structural scans. The last run of the scan session was the rest fMRI sequence in which participants were instructed to close their eyes and asked not to fall asleep.

Data Quality Control

We submitted all collected data, regardless of movement/quality.

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Investigators

Jeffrey S. Anderson, M.D., Ph.D.1,2,3,4, Jared A. Nielsen, B.S.2,5, Alyson L. Froehlich, Ph.D.5, Molly B. DuBray, M.A.2,5, Michael A. Ferguson, Ph.D.4, T. Jason Druzgal, M.D., Ph.D.6, Annahir N. Cariello5, Jason R. Cooperrider, B.S.2,5, Brandon A. Zielinski, M.D., Ph.D.7,8, Caitlin Ravichandran, Ph.D.9,10, P. Thomas Fletcher, Ph.D.3,11,12, Andrew L. Alexander, Ph.D.13, Erin D. Bigler, Ph.D.3,14, Nicholas Lange, Sc.D.9,10, Janet E. Lainhart, M.D.2,3,5

Affiliations

  1. Division of Neuroradiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
  2. Interdepartmental Program in Neuroscience, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
  3. The Brain Institute at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
  4. Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
  5. Department of Psychiatry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
  6. Department of Radiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA
  7. Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
  8. Division of Child Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
  9. Neurostatistics Laboratory, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA
  10. Departments of Psychiatry and Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Cambridge, MA, USA
  11. School of Computing, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
  12. Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
  13. Departments of Medical Physics and Psychiatry, and the Waisman Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA
  14. Departments of Psychology and Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge Melody Johnson, Henry Buswell, and Michael Reading for assistance with data acquisition.

Funding

  • National Institutes of Health (grant numbers: K08 MH092697, RO1MH080826, P50MH60450, T32DC008553, R01NS34783)
  • Autism Speaks Mentor-based Predoctoral Fellowship (grant number: 1677)
  • University of Utah Multidisciplinary Research Seed Grant
  • NRSA Predoctoral Fellowship (grant number: F31 DC010143)
  • Ben B. and Iris M. Margolis Foundation

Publications

  • Anderson JS, Druzgal TJ, Froehlich A, DuBray MB, Lange N, Alexander AL, Abildskov T, Nielsen JA, Cariello AN, Cooperrider JR, Bigler ED, Lainhart JE. (2011). Decreased interhemispheric connectivity in autism. Cereb Cortex, 21(5), 1134-1146.
  • Anderson, JS, Nielsen, JA, Froehlich AL, DuBray MB, Druzgal TJ, Cariello AN, Cooperrider JR, Zielinski BA, Ravichandran C, Fletcher PT, Alexander AL, Bigler ED, Lange N, Lainhart JE (2011). Functional Connectivity MRI Classification of Autism. Brain, 134(12):3739-3751.

Sample Size

Total: 101 (8.8-50.2 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 58 (11.4-50.2 years)
(57 Autistic Disorder and 1 Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified)

Typical Controls (TC): 43 (8.8-39.4 years)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Potential participants with ASD were recruited from community sources, including parent support groups, youth groups, schools, social skills groups, and other organizations. Inclusion criteria for individuals with ASD were performance IQ > 70, absence of known medical causes of autism (such as tuberous sclerosis, Fragile X, or neonatal ischemic/hypoxia), no blindness or deafness, and, at the time of ascertainment, no history of seizures, severe head injury, or severe medical problems. Medical causes of autism were excluded by history, physical exam, Fragile-X gene testing, and karyotype. ASD are rigorously diagnosed at the time of ascertainment. Parents were interviewed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). All individuals were directly assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), a semi-structured play and interview session designed to elicit social, communication, and stereotyped repetitive behaviors characteristic of autism. Inclusion as an individual with ASD required meeting full ADOS-G, and DSM-IV-TR criteria for autism at initial ascertainment. Two subjects were included that met criteria for autism, but on subsequent assessment in a longitudinal study were found to have scores more consistent with PDD-NOS and Asperger Syndrome, respectively. All individuals with ASD are personally evaluated by a clinical autism expert (JEL).

Typical Controls (TC)

Inclusion criteria for typical controls were performance IQ > 70, no history of learning disabilities out of proportion to IQ, neurological disorder, severe head injury, neonatal ischemia/hypoxia, substance abuse, psychiatric disorder, or family history of an autism-spectrum disorder in 1st, 2nd, or 3rd degree relatives. TC were group matched to the ASD group relative to age.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Participants were recruited from the local community (see detailed above). Participants signed a written consent/assent from approved by the University of Utah IRB.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (total, performance and verbal IQ) using the four subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), and the WASI-III. The IQ tests varied depending on the timepoint at which the participant completed the r-fMRI in relation to the time point of the longitudinal study from which the dataset was drawn.

Additional Questionnaires

We administered standardized questionnaires to further characterize participants with respect to various symptom domains. Specifically, for child participants, a parent completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)-Child version. For adult participants, an informant identified by the participant completed the SRS-Adult version. Raw total scores are provided in the shared dataset.

Handedness

We used the 22 item version of the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. For each item, participants were asked if they use the right, the left, or both hands to complete a particular task. The sum of the right-hand responses minus the sum of the left hand responses divided by the total number of unilateral responses multiplied by 100 provided a total handedness score ranging from 100 (strongest right handedness) to -100 (strongest left handedness).

Exclusion Criteria Common to all Participants

Contraindication to MRI, including claustrophobia, metallic implant, recent tattoo, body weight over 350 pounds, braces, or pacemaker, was an exclusion criteria for all patients.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

We did not use any mock scan or additional preparation beyond standard written and verbal description during consent/assent as well as verbal instructions prior to and during the scan session.

MRI Scanning

Images came from a longitudinal functional and structural MRI study where images were acquired from participants about every 2-3 years. This represents the first time point at which resting functional MRI scans were obtained. In the same scan session, additional structural MRI scans, 2 language task fMRI series, and diffusion tensor image sequence were also collected, all on the same scanner. Resting state fMRI data were collected with the following subject instructions: "Keep your eyes open and remain awake, letting thoughts pass through your mind without focusing on any particular mental activity."

Data Quality Control

No data were excluded based on motion or image quality assessments.

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Investigators

Ben Deen1,2, Kevin Pelphrey, Ph.D.1

Affiliations

  1. Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
  2. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge Randi Bennett, Allison Berken, Caitlin Hudac, Daniel Sugrue, Brent Vander Wyk, Danielle Bolling, and Avery Voos for help with data collection.

Funding

  • Simons Foundation (KP)
  • Autism Speaks (KP)
  • John Merck Scholars Fund (KP)
  • Autism Science Foundation
  • NICHD (KP)
  • NIMH

Publications

  • No publications associated to the shared data.

Sample Size

Total: 56 (7.0-17.8 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): 28 (7.0-17.8 years)
(6 Autistic Disorder, 8 Asperger's Disorder, & 14 Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified)

Typical Controls (TC): 28 (7.7-17.8 years)

Diagnostics

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Participants with ASD were required to meet cutoffs for ASD on the ADOS and (for those who received it) the ADI-R, administered by a research-reliable clinician. They were further required to have a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ASD as confirmed by one of three expert clinicians at the Yale Child Study Center, each with 5 or more years of experience in diagnosing ASD, and a combined 45 years of diagnostic experience.

Typical Controls (TC)

TCs were free of neuropsychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorders as determined via parent report.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Typically developing children were recruited from community surrounding the New Haven area via advertisements including television, newspaper, and magazine advertisements. Children with ASD were recruited through the Simons Simplex Collection and through the Yale Autism Clinic.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (total, performance, and verbal IQ) using the Differential Ability Scales (DAS).

Handedness

Handedness was collected via parent report.

Medication Information

We did not collect medical history for TC (beyond parental report of an absence of neuropsychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorder). Medical histories were available for all participants with ASD. We did not ask participants to alter their medication regimen prior to the scan.

Exclusion Criteria Common to all Participants

All participants had normal or corrected to normal vision. All participants spoke English as their primary language in the home.

Scan Procedure and Parameters

MRI Scan Preparation

Participants received one or more sessions in a mock scanner to prepare them for the actual MRI scan.

MRI Scanning

Participants were asked to lie as still as possible, keep their eyes open, try not to fall asleep, and think about whatever they want. A black background with a gray central fixation cross was presented during the resting state scan, although participants were not asked to fixate. At the end of the scan, we verified that participants had not fallen asleep.

Data Quality Control

Initially, 40 TD participants and 42 participants with ASD completed a scan session. A motion correction algorithm was applied, which removed pairs of volumes with 0.5mm of motion in any direction or 0.5 degrees of rotation about any axis between them, as well as sets of 4 volumes with 1mm motion in any direction, or 1 degree of rotation about any axis, across the volumes. Participants with more than 25% of volumes (50 volumes) discarded in this manner were removed from the dataset, leaving 28 participants in the TC group and 28 in the ASD group. With these groups, there turned out to be no significant differences in estimates of intelligence, mean between-volume head motion, or number of volumes satisfying the high-motion criterion above.

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